Sunday, June 7, 2020

How to Make Your Book Review More Critical with an Outline

How to Make Your Book Review More Critical with an Outline? Setting out to write a critical book review is a daunting task. Something about the word ‘critical’ seems to conjure up scary visions of having to wade through huge tomes of literary theory that threaten to swallow your limited analyzing abilities as a student. A review at the end of the day is supposed to be critical where you share your opinion on a specific topic and it tells the makers or readers your honest opinion on it. There are many reviewers out there, criticizing all kinds of books including fiction and essays, but not all these reviewers or their opinions are valued. At times, it is only because they’re lacking a proper outline and hence are not able to write their thoughts properly. Why Have an Outline for a Critical Book Review? Like any other assignment set by a systematically produced curriculum, a critical book review is also easy. You simply apply a systematic approach and break it into parts. You jot down the essential elements you need to include. Working according to an outline is a great way to accomplish your goals. An outline serves as a systematic tool that will keep you on track. You can always refer to your outline to make sure you are not missing anything. Moreover, we mention some tips on actual critical book review writing, so it’s two birds with one shot. This guide will tell you how to prepare an outline in four easy steps which correspond to the recommended sections. Introduction (1-2 Paragraphs, Half a Page) Like any good piece of writing, start with an introduction. The specific form is up to you, choose a quotation that you liked, a particularly powerful scene in the book, even a personal anecdote which ties into the broader opinion you hold of the book. The goal is to capture the reader’s attention and keep them hooked. Include an overview of the book where you summarize the plot and also present an expression of your overall judgment. Summary (1 Page or about 23 Lines of Typed Text) A summary is a brief discussion of the major themes, concepts, and ideas presented in the book. It is recommended that you write this entirely in your own words. Present a condensed picture of the book. If your summary contains spoilers, make sure you warn your readers about it. Critical Evaluation (3 Pages) The third is an in-depth section which includes the reviewer’s reactions to the thoughts of the author. Most students often find it challenging to be critical, probably because they are under the impression that in order to critique something you have to possess expert-level knowledge. This is an unfortunate opinion that must be dispelled from your mind. Conclusion (1-2 Paragraphs, Half a Page) A short section which shows the overall impression and evaluation arrived at by the reviewer. It can be written in first person if desired and should include: Things which you learned from the book; Whether you would recommend the book to other people. A critique is simply a collection of responses, reactions and thoughts to what you are reading. No one expects you to produce an expert-level critique if you are only a learner. The best way to make this easy is to write down your thoughts and impressions while you are reading the book. Jot down any questions or aspects you like and at the end of your read you will have a significant set of notes that will make the critique a breeze. Here are the aspects that you need to include: Your overall opinion and the reasons behind it. How did the book make you feel? Was the writing able to hold your interest? What was the author trying to communicate? How well—or not—did the author present his or her points, ideas and assumptions? Did you detect any underlying philosophy in the book? Is the author’s view objective? How does the book fit into the context of the course? How useful are the footnotes, index, bibliography etc.? Is the book a useful contribution to the field in general? What are the strengths/weaknesses of the book? Do you have unanswered questions from what book? What would you like to add or remove from the book to make it better? You need to mention these questions in your outline to know what to focus on in your writing. Then, while creating the actual book review, formulate these sections as a properly structured essay that includes topic sentences and logical transitions. These outline guidelines are extremely important because the moment you detail them, you’ll have a clear structure in your head. We hope that they will make your book review as critical as possible (in a good way).

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Mgmt591 Project Proposal - 1336 Words

How can Perceptions and Attributions Of Certain Roles in the Organization Be Controlled Within Organizational Change? Christine Freese 4020 Derby Drive, Cumming, GA 30040 cfreese@ariba.com 770-402-6287 MGMT591- Leadership and Organizational Behavior Joseph Walkowicz September 29, 2013 * Introduction a) The organization discussed in this research paper is Ariba, Inc (an SAP Company). Ariba is a software and information technology services company located in Sunnyvale, California. It was acquired by German software maker SAP AG in 2012. Ariba provides Spend Management solutions which help companies analyze, understand, and manage their corporate spending to achieve cost savings and business process efficiency.†¦show more content†¦Culture is resistant to change because many of the cultural control mechanism become internalized in the minds of organizational members, that is, what makes culture such strong control mechanism. Changing culture often means that members have to change their entire social identify. Sometimes the statuses of various roles or identities change causing even more resistance on the part of high status role holders. g) Schermerhorn, John R.. Organizational Behavior, 12th Edition. John Wiley amp; Sons, 11/2011. Chapter 4 iii) What is perception and why is it important? (11) Individuals use the perception process to select, organize, interpret, and retrieve information from the world around them. (12) Perception acts as a filter through which all communication passes as it travels from one person to the next. iv) What are the common perceptual distortions? (1) Halo effects (2) Selective perception (3) Projection (4) Contrast. ii) What is the link between perception, attribution, and social learning? (1) Attribution theory (2) Three factors that influence the attribution of external or internal causation are distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency. (3) Fundamental attribution

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Us Financial Crisis - 2046 Words

The US Financial System: A Crumbling Empire The financial system has been crucial to the role of free enterprise. â€Å"Financial markets have come to supply non-financial corporations with mechanisms for managing their risks and for comparing and evaluating diverse investment opportunities in a highly complex global economy† (Cindin, 2008). â€Å"However, despite the lifetimes it took to build our financial institutions, bad luck and careless risk management have jeopardized careers and mortgaged these institutions’ futures†(Wallace, 2008). The nation is currently attempting to deal with the biggest financial crisis since the Great Depression. It is now imperative that a way be found which will re-regulate finance without undermining finance’s†¦show more content†¦The ongoing plunge in bank capital is already forcing banks to significantly cut back on outstanding loans, and businesses’ plans for major investment projects are being scaled back. These capital losses are resulting in financial institutions going bankrupt or merging with stronger banks. â€Å"Financial services companies have cut more than one-hundred thousand jobs this year and deeper layoffs may come† (Berenson, 2008). Even while cutting back on long-term loans seems to be unbearable, short-term loans pose a greater threat to the survival of the financial system. The fourth and final threat facing our economy is the necessity of short-term loans. In an effort to reestablish tangible capital, banks are beginning to cut back on short-term loans. â€Å"If the short-term commercial paper and money markets were to break down, the economy could go into a severe collapse because solvent and profitable businesses would be unable to attract working capital† (Sachs, 2008). This kind of collapse in financial liquidity is the basic reason why the United States economy fell by around twenty-five percent during the Great Depression (Sachs, 2008). Already, some of the biggest names on Wall Stree t have disappeared into thin air. Some attempts have been made to bring liquidity back to financial institutions. In an effort to avoid anShow MoreRelatedEssay on Overview of the Recent Financial Crisis in the US1468 Words   |  6 Pages1. Introduction The financial crisis started in the USA because of subprime mortgage crisis in 2007. As a consequence of it, a credit crunch was originated and it quickly spread from the real state sector to other sectors, and furthermore, from USA to other countries. This caused a series of financial and economic crises like the collapse of housing markets in Europe, the global stock markets, global financial systems and markets, along with a lot of large banks and financial institutions, as (SunRead MoreGlobal Financial Crisis in Us2995 Words   |  12 Pagessector led to the global financial crisis of 2008-2009. SUBMITTED BY: PANKAJ PARASHAR STUDENT ID: 3098673 SUBMITTED TO: DR.LISA BARNES GSBS6484:CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PANKAJ PARASHAR 3098673 GSBS6484 Page | 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 3 2. INTRODUCTION †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦... 4 3. GROWING OUT OF FINANCIAL CRISIS†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 4. INITIATION OF GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. .5 5. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF US POLICIES AND IRREGULARITIESRead MoreFixed Income in a Financial Crisis (A): US Treasuries in November 2082666 Words   |  11 PagesFixed Income in a Financial Crisis (A): US Treasuries in November 2008 Academic Year 2013/2014 Executive Summary In the first part of our report, we investigate if a 35 basis points yield spread represents mispricing of two bonds, both with the same maturity but one with a coupon rate of 10.625% and the other 4.25%. Our investigation also determines if the yield spread represents an arbitrage opportunity. In our investigation, we calculate the theoretical yield spread between the two bondsRead MoreVietnam And Its Effects On The United States1101 Words   |  5 Pagesopenness and (ii) Before the crisis, Vietnam was ranked the 50th and 41st among the top 50 countries with highest exports and imports relatively, accounting for 0.3% of total global exports and 0.4% of total global imports. 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The second part will provide explanations on how toRead MoreThe Asian Financial Crisis and Thailand: Catalyst for Change...or More of The Same? 1647 Words   |  7 Pagesfirst country swept into an economic crisis that spread throughout the region within months. Why did Thailand unexpectedly fall into a rapid economic crisis and how has the crisis shaped the current political economy of the country? Although Thailand sustained high levels of growth for decades, international capital flight triggered an economic crisis that was exacerbated by domestic weaknesses as well as poor reform measures. Furthermore, the Asian Financial Crisis initially became a catalyst forRead More Foreign Exchange Mark et Essay1629 Words   |  7 PagesForeign Exchange Market The foreign exchange market is one of the most important financial markets. It affects the relative price of goods between countries and so can affect trade. It means that it affects the price of imports and so affects a country’s price level (inflation rate). It also affects the international investment and financing decision. In this project, we will try to find why exchange rate would give many risks to a company and how a company can hedge itself. Definition

Les Gens De Couleur Libres, The Free People of Col Essay Example For Students

Les Gens De Couleur Libres, The Free People of Col Essay or in New OrleansShattered dreams. Broken promises. They were hung between freedom and slavery. They struggled to find a different kind of freedom and independency where justice has yet to exist and racism wasnt just a part of life, but what life was all about. New OrleansNew Orleans is a city in southern Louisiana, located on the Mississippi River. Most of the city is situated on the east bank, between the river and Lake Pontchartrain to the north. Because it was built on a great turn of the river, it is known as the Crescent City. New Orleans was founded in 1718 by Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, sieur de Bienville, and named for the regent of France, Philippe II, duc dOrleans. It remained a French colony until 1763, when it was surrendered to the Spanish. In 1800, Spain ceded it back to France; in 1803, New Orleans, along with the entire Louisiana Purchase, was sold by Napoleon I to the United States. Like the early American settlements along Massachusetts Bay and Chesapeake Bay, New Orleans served as a distinctive cultural gateway to North America, where people from Europe and Africa initially intertwined their lives and customs with those of the native inhabitants of the New World. The resulting way of life differed dramatically from the culture than was spawned in the English colonies of North America. New Orleans is a place where Africans, Indians and European settlers shared their cultures and blended together. Encouraged by the French government, this strategy for producing a tough, durable culture in a difficu lt place, marked New Orleans as different and special and it still continues to distinguish the city today. The AfricansAfrican Americans make up about half of the city of New Orleans population to date. How did this come about? Well, during the eighteenth century, Africans came to the city directly from West Africa. The majority passed neither through the West Indies nor South America, so they developed complicated relations with both the Indian and Europeans. The Spanish rulers (1765-1802) reached out to the black population for support against the French settlers; in doing so, they allowed many to buy their own freedom. These free black settlers along with Creole slaves formed the earliest black urban settlement in North America. The CreolesA Creole is a person born in the West Indies or Spanish America but of European, usually Spanish, ancestry. And it also means a person descended from Africans and European. Those were the Free People of Color. They were highly skilled craftsmen, business people, educators, writers, planters, and musicians. Many free women of color were highly skilled seamstresses, hairdressers, and cooks while some owned property and kept boarding houses. Some of them were planters before and after the Civil War and owned slaves. Although shocking and incomprehensible to many people today, the fact that some free people of color owned slaves must come to light. DiscriminationWhile financial prosperity was common, discrimination was also. Although business was performed between whites and Creoles of color in public houses, they did not socialize outside of business arrangements. Striking of a white person by a free person of color could mean arrest. Free people of color could not vote, no m atter how white they may have looked. Women by law were forced to cover their hair with a scarf in the early part of the 19the century. Being clever, they soon sported sophisticated headgear complete with feather and jewels. Opera and theatre going was a favorite pastime of both white and the gens de couleur, although they were not seated together. .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 , .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 .postImageUrl , .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 , .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2:hover , .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2:visited , .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2:active { border:0!important; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2:active , .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2 .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u832de30db88d42513813f5df50292fc2:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Ethical Dilemma Of The Indian Barial Contovers EssayPlacageAmerican immigrants found them to be quite exotic, for the black Creoles were Catholic, French or Creole speakers, and accustomed to an entirely different lifestyle. Placage was an arrangement between a free woman of color and a white protector. As it was illegal for a woman of color to marry a white man. The arrangements benefited both parties involved. French and Spanish fathers treated their Creole children equitable, often sending them to Europe for education and making them legal heirs. Creole Society and CustomsThe people of color are a unique group of people that have contributed to the most European city in America, New Orleans. Their lifestyle inclined towards those of freed slaves; they were allowed to own businesses, farms, houses and even slaves of their own. Mansions in and near Natchez are representative of Creole architecture. They had large spacious rooms with high vaulted ceilings, arched doorways, overhead fanlights, and wrought-iron railings. There were tall white columns, broad galleries, and large entrances on the outside of the houses. In the back of the most mansions was the kitchen and further back were the slave quarters. The mansions grounds were gorgeous with magnificent old trees and Spanish moss, tons of flowers, and gracious lawns. The inside of the mansions reflected the plantation owners wealth; hand-carved rosewood furniture, mantles, stairs, etc.; winding mahogany staircases, decorated ceilings, etc. The Creoles loved to dance and they attended many balls. Society balls were usually sponsored by a group of bachelors and young married men. Other entertainments included attending the opera or the theatre, vaudeville shows, concerts and parades. The men liked to gamble, play billiards, backgammon, checkers, dominoes, or attend cockfights, horse races, dogfights, and bullfights. Creole customs can be divided into two kinds: religious and non-religious. Religious customs focus on holidays: All Saints Day, Mardi Gras and Easter, for example. On All Saints Day Creoles bring flowers made of white, black, or purple tissue paper to place on graves in the cemetery. The week before this holiday shops display crowns and crosses with black beads and immortelles, which might be pictures of saints. Mardi GrasLoosely interpreted, it means, Fat Tuesday. Mardi Gras is celebrated on the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday, which is the beginning of Lent. Lent is the season of prayer and fasting observed by the Roman Catholic Church and other Christian denominations during the forty days and seven Sundays before Easter Sunday. The custom of masking on Mardi Gras was brought from France by the early settlers. During the period when Louisiana was a French, and later a Spanish province, the maskers went from house to house, but there was no regular street parade until after the Americans came into the State. The Americans thought Mardi Gras might become a business enterprise, and be made 80 attractive as to draw visitors to New Orleans. Early Tuesday morning the merry children, noisy with tinkling bells and dressed in masks and gay dominoes, come out of their houses and visit from door to door in their neighborhood. Later in the day there is a street parade, and another one at night. The Mardi Gras gayeties end with the most brilliant ball of the season. In conclusion I would like to repeat that from the earliest days of New Orleans history, free persons of color have coexisted with those of European extraction. They didnt have to get along fine, but that was just a way of life, which many, had to either accept or fight against. The free people of color, although free, did not have all of the rights of their white counterparts. As Charles E. ONeill, in Our People and Our History, defined it They shared neither the privileges of the master class nor the degradation of the slave. They stood between or rather apart sharing the cultivated tastes of the upper caste and the painful humiliation attached to the race of the enslaved. .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 , .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 .postImageUrl , .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 , .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0:hover , .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0:visited , .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0:active { border:0!important; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0:active , .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0 .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uea84d23ce45aba00177f6853e1dec0e0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Multiple Intelligences EssaySOURCESOur People and Our History by Rodolphe Lucien Desdunes and Dorothea Olga McCants. Creole New Orleans: Race and Americanization by Arnold R. Hirsch Joseph Logsdon. http://www.wholehostno.com/nohistory.html

Monday, April 20, 2020

State Competition and Higher Education A Race to Essay Example For Students

State Competition and Higher Education: A Race to Essay the Top? With MarkInterstate Competition in Health and Welfare Programs (with Mark Rom) Does state control over redistributive programs make them less generous? Most analyses of interstate competition over welfare (known colloquially as the race to the bottom, or RTB) focus solely on benefit levels for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). This paper broadens the analysis to cover multiple welfare programs, multiple measures of generosity, and multiple indicators of state competition. Doing so has two main benefits. First, we can distinguish between competitive behavior by states and intrinsic regional covariation. We examine welfare programs under state control and exempt from it, and include indicators of symmetric and asymmetric competition, and argue that the RTB requires that competitive pressure must restrict welfare generosity, and that this restriction must be present in welfare programs over which states have control and absent from programs exempt from state contr ol. Second, we evaluate multiple measures and programs and so can generalize theories about interstate competition and redistribution. To do so we examine benefits, access, and cost for the AFDC, Medicaid, Medicare and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs between 1975 and 1995. A multivariate model yields strong evidence that state control over redistribution leads across the board to restrictive health and welfare policy. We will write a custom essay on State Competition and Higher Education: A Race to specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Interstate Competition in Health and Welfare Programs (with Mark Rom) Does state control over redistributive programs make them less generous? Most analyses of interstate competition over welfare (known colloquially as the race to the bottom, or RTB) focus solely on benefit levels for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). This paper broadens the analysis to cover multiple welfare programs, multiple measures of generosity, and multiple indicators of state competition. Doing so has two main benefits. First, we can distinguish between competitive behavior by states and intrinsic regional covariation. We examine welfare programs under state control and exempt from it, and include indicators of symmetric and asymmetric competition, and argue that the RTB requires that competitive pressure must restrict welfare generosity, and that this restriction must be present in welfare programs over which states have control and absent from programs exempt from state control. Second, we eva luate multiple measures and programs and so can generalize theories about interstate competition and redistribution. To do so we examine benefits, access, and cost for the AFDC, Medicaid, Medicare and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs between 1975 and 1995. A multivariate model yields strong evidence that state control over redistribution leads across the board to restrictive health and welfare policy. Interstate Competition in Health and Welfare Programs (with Mark Rom) Does state control over redistributive programs make them less generous? Most analyses of interstate competition over welfare (known colloquially as the race to the bottom, or RTB) focus solely on benefit levels for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). This paper broadens the analysis to cover multiple welfare programs, multiple measures of generosity, and multiple indicators of state competition. Doing so has two main benefits. First, we can distinguish between competitive behavior by states and intrinsic regional covariation. We examine welfare programs under state control and exempt from it, and include indicators of symmetric and asymmetric competition, and argue that the RTB requires that competitive pressure must restrict welfare generosity, and that this restriction must be present in welfare programs over which states have control and absent from programs exempt from state control. Second, we eva luate multiple measures and programs and so can generalize theories about interstate competition and redistribution. To do so we examine benefits, access, and cost for the AFDC, Medicaid, Medicare and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs between 1975 and 1995. A multivariate model yields strong evidence that state control over redistribution leads across the board to restrictive health and welfare policy. .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 , .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 .postImageUrl , .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 , .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904:hover , .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904:visited , .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904:active { border:0!important; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904:active , .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904 .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud8ea5e20ca364ecb18a6790f6682e904:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Electronic Voting and What Should be Done EssayInterstate Competition in Health and Welfare Programs (with Mark Rom) Does state control over redistributive programs make them less generous? Most analyses of interstate competition over welfare (known colloquially as the race to the bottom, or RTB) focus solely on benefit levels for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). This paper broadens the analysis to cover multiple welfare programs, multiple measures of generosity, and multiple indicators of state competition. Doing so has two main

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Product Life Cycle

Product Life Cycle Introduction According to definition provided in the biology sciences, living things follow a rigid development lifecycle of birth, growth, maturity and death. This cycle forms the basis for the concept of product lifecycle and, by extension, a framework for describing the path a certain product will follow in a particular period of time.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Product Life Cycle specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In product management, this concept comprises of introduction, growth, maturity and decline stage. In the introduction stage, it takes some time for a product to be accepted by the public, but by the time it reaches the growth stage it is able to attract many customers. In maturity stage, its market even out as competitors develop competitive products, and its popularity declines. Old products are finally withdrawn from the market marking decline (Marketing Teacher, 2000, Para 1). Since PLC depicts t he product path from the launching period, it is a perfect tool for managing a product. Organizations can establish customer demands and alter the products features to meet these requirements. In addition, it helps the organization to determine when cost recovery will commence, as well as define the volume of transactions. This information is important to the organization for two reasons. First of all, it is possible to tell when a product can be introduced or withdrawn from a market. Secondly, it gives information about a product success or failure, as well as its position relative to competitors’ products. However, PLC has its limitation, especially it lacks for the universality in application (Tellis, nd, 6). This paper discusses the concept of PLC and how it is applied to cost recovery. It further examines how the concept has been successfully applied in development of technological products by Apple Inc. Stages of Product Life Cycle In addition to the four stages in figu re 1 presented, I will also discuss the development phase in this section. Figure 1. The Product Life CycleAdvertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Source: Christiansen et al, 2010 p 801 Development Phase This phase involves the conception of a product idea and various changes made on the basis of the original mode before it is being developed into a final product. The model product is passed through the test market before being delivered to the target customers. In the development stage, company does not generate any revenue, although it incurs expenditures. This stage is followed by launching of the model product that survives test market. Introduction Stage At this stage, the product adopted after development phase is launched. The companys goal in this stage is to ensure that the product will have maximum impact by the time it goes in the market. This is why it is nec essary to take into account the customers demands that a product should meet (Haslam, 1989, p. 20 In this section, I will use iPod and iPhone products to demonstrate the differences between mature and growing market. Apple Inc is an American multicultural corporations dealing with marketing and designing of computer software, consumer electronics, and Personal computers (Markoff, 2011).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Technological products have shorter product life cycles because companies are persistently evolving and improving their products by prolonging their significance and extending their life. Apple Inc, for instance, develops new and better technology after every twelve to eighteen months and, as a result, the products it offers to its customers are always innovative and revolutionary. Figure 2. iPods Sales Chart Source: Ashcroft, Nd, 8 iPod sales trend in figure 2 shows the product cycle. Before its peak sales in 2008, various generations of the product had been introduced such as Nano, Class and Touch and iPhone in the middle of the year (Cahill, 2011, Para 2). This year, there was little competition for iPod but introduction of iPhone distracted its potential sales. Both 2008 and 2009 years presented in the figure indicate that the sales had been stabilized and afterwards started to decline. In 2010, Apple quarterly sales report revealed a decline in the sales of iPod. These sales h ad been reduced from 11 million to 10.2 in a span of three months. Figure 3. Apple Product Sales by Segment Source: Ashcroft, Nd, 8 Figure 3 shows that iPod overstayed in a maturity stage and it’s now entering its decline. On the other hand, iPhone curve shows that these days it is going into its growth stage, and it has registered an increase in sales. The company has also introduced a new product in 2009 called the iPad. However, it is iPod that has significantly contributed to the higher profits that apple has experienced. In spite of this, its sales graph has reflected the S-curve that indicates that it is undergoing the product life cycle. As we have already discussed, in order to prevent decline, it is necessary to improve the product features to rejuvenate the growth of sales. This may include development of new iPad model that will have additional feature. Different Product Market Phases and Their Impact on Cost Recovery In introduction phase of the product, costs ar e higher and there is no return for the company. As a result, it does not recover the cost incurred in product development at this stage. As the product progress to the third stage of PLC, company registers increased sales and the brand is be recognized, this results in further cutting the cost and increasing returns. In the maturity stage, since the product brand is already established, the company does not spend much on promotion (Nagle Hogan, 2006). In our case, iPod made more profit because it overstayed in the maturity stage, which is the phase with the least costs. Since in growth stage the company registers increasing sales, iPhone curve is rising steadily, but in the maturity, the sales volumes even out because the market is beginning to be saturated by products of different models. This PLC analysis tool is important to a company like Apple Inc, which offers goods in the technological industry where the product must be constantly enhanced. Summary Product life cycle analys is reveals different pictures for a production. In introduction stages, capital outlay is high and sales are low which results in low profits. This is followed by growth where sales volumes begin to rise and cost lowers due to decrease in advertisement and promotions costs. This stage register an increase in profits, but spending is still high as a company strives to expand market share. In maturity stage, cost gets even lower as the product brand is established, competition increase, and new generation products are developed. The product is more profitable due to lower cost in this stage. At the decline stage, sales decrease due to the fact that customers change tastes and profit margin remains intact (Marketing assignment No. 3, Nd, 7). References Ashcroft, J Nd, Apple in the digital age from the iPod to the iPad. Available from: pro-manchester.co.uk/assets/Applecasestudy.pdf. [5 December 2011]. Avlonitis, G 2001, Strategic Industrial Marketing, Stanoulis, New York. Business 101 - The Basics n.d., Product and Pricing Strategies. Available from: http://faculty.piercecollege.edu/rskidmore/Ghost/library/Chapters/CHPT12-04.pdf. [5 December 2011]. Cahill, B. iPod Sales – does this graph look familiar? Available form: http://tutor2u.net/blog/index.php/business-studies/comments/ipod-sales-does-this-graph-look-familiar. [5 December 2011]. Christiansen J. K., Varnes C. J., Gasparin M.,Storm-Nielsen D. and Vinther E. J. 2010, Living Twice: How a Product Goes through Multiple Life Cycles. J PRODD MANAG 27: 797-827. Haslam, C., Neale A., Johal S. 1989, Economics in a business context, Cengage Learning EMEA London. Komninos, I. 2002, Product Life Cycle Management. Research paper for Urban and Regional Innovation research unit, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, pp. 1-26. Available from: urenio.org/tools/en/Product_Life_Cycle_Management.pdf. [5 December 2011]. Kotler, P., Armstrong, G. 2001, Principles of Marketing. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.  Marketing Ass ignment No.3. (Nd). Availablefrom: scribd.com/doc/16512298/Product-Life-Cycle. [5 December 2011]. Marketing Teacher. (2000). The Product Life Cycle (PLC). MarketingTeacher.com. Available from: http://marketingteacher.com/lesson-store/lesson-plc.html. [5 December 2011]. Markoff, J. 2011, Apple Incorporated. The New York Times [online], available from: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/business/companies/apple_computer_inc/index.html. [5 December 2011]. McNamara, C. n.d., Basic Overview of Organizational Life Cycles. Available from: mapnp.org/library/org_thry/org_cycl.htm. [5 December 2011]. Nagle, T. T., Hogan J. E. 2006, The Strategy and Tactics of Pricing. A guide to Growing More Profitability, Pearson Education, New Jersey. NetMBA. 2002, The Product Life Cycle. Available from netmba.com/marketing/product/lifecycle/. [5 December 2011]. Perreault, W. D., Cannon J. P., McCarthy E. J. 2009, Product Management and New Product Development. In Basic Marketing. A Marketing Strategy Pla nning Approach, Ed. 17 Chap 10. McGraw-Hill, New York. Tellis, G. Nd, An Evolutionary Approach to product Growth Theory. Division of Research Graduate School of Business Administration The University of Michigan.232: 1-31.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Now...This by Neil Postman Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Now...This by Neil Postman - Article Example The understanding is also tolerated. There is no destruction so cruel, no tremor so ravaging, no political error so high-priced--for that matter, no ball score so provoking or weather description so threatening--that it cannot be erased from minds by a newscaster saying, "Now . . . This."Â  (Postman) What the newscasters purport is the previous matters have been thought about for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary for alteration of the scene and perception of the viewers. This can be done by changing what preoccupies the mind with a new idea or news fragment. This is done in the mentality of commercialization in terms of promotion and marketing to meet the current demands by the community. This process of thought does not take more than an hour in psychological mind. Television and radio are mediums that are used by a discrete event in every halt an hour to disseminate separate contents. The contents may have separate contexts and emotional characteristic structure from the follows and precedes it. Because the media promotion takes place in minutes and seconds, maybe because the audience can be manipulated through the communication platform of imagery and words, the structuring of programs is done in a way that each segment of 8 minutes’ ability to stand as a separate complete event. (Stewart) News in the television is merely entertainment. It is engulfed with a cast of actors who are admirable and credible. Analytically, the Television news anchors are mostly women of the age gap from 20 to 45 and are exceptionally beautiful. It also includes men who are handsome, who are not bald, fat, have neither long noses nor closed eyes. In the definition of truth, the ultimate propositional test of the teller determines the television’s credibility. This means that if the society trusts in the teller then what he or she says is classified as the truth. In other words, the truth